|1.|| In-vitro interactions of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride with different essential mineral salts and its influence on antimicrobial activity (MIC) of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride |
S. M. Moazzem Hossen, Md. Shahidul Islam, Kafil Uddin Mazumder, Md. Salim Hossain, Amitava Chowdhury, Amit kumar Deb, Shafaith Mohammad Shobuj
Abstract: Present work describes the interactions of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride with different essential mineral salt like Magnesium Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate and Potassium Chloride in an aqueous system at pH 7.4. This Magnesium Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate and Potassium Chloride are essential trace element. From spectrophotometric study, it has been found that Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride forms 1:1 complex with Magnesium Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate and Potassium Chloride. Spectral studies helps to detect the initial complexation between drug and mineral salts. Job’s plot at 7.4 provides same type of information. An individual antimicrobial study (MIC) of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride in 1:1 mixture with Magnesium Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate and Potassium Chloride at pH 7.4 was performed. These studies were carried out by observing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the complexes and compared with the parent Cephradine against both Gram negative and Gram positive microorganisms in nutrient broth medium. Study confirms interactions of the Cephradine with Magnesium Sulfate, Manganese
Sulfate, Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate and Potassium Chloride and the interactions results into change the antimicrobial activity of Cephradine. Result shows that the antimicrobial activity increasing trends in presence of Magnesium Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Ferrous Sulfate and decreasing trends in presence of Zinc Sulfate and Potassium Chloride.
Keywords: Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride, Job’s Plot, Ardon’s method, MIC.
|2.|| Anti-diarrheal, Analgesic and Anti-microbial activities of the plant Lalmesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa): A review |
Md. Raihan Sarkar, S. M. Moazzem Hossen, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Md. Ashfaqure Rahman, Avijit Dey
Abstract: The aim of this study was to phytochemically investigate the ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. calyces and to evaluate the analgesic, anti-microbial and anti-diarrheal activities of this. The calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were separated from the other plant parts and sun dried and extracted using ethanol and phytochemically and pharmacologically evaluated.Different Phytochemical tests were performed for phytochemical screening and for determining the functional groups. Different methods like Disc diffusion method for antimicrobial activity determination, Castor oil induced diarrhea in mice method for the antidiarrheal study and Acetic acid induced writhing test for analgesic activity were employed. Phytochemical screening of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa ensured the presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins in the crude ethanolic extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid induced Writhing method. The extract produced 66.85% (p< 0.001) inhibition of writhing in mice at the dose of 500-mg/kg body weight, which is comparable to diclofenac sodium (78.45% (p<0.001) at the dose of 25mg/kg). The anti-diarrheal activity of the crude extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa was evaluated using the model of castor oil induced diarrhea in mice. The crude etanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyces) showed a marked antidiarrhoeal activity at dose of 500 mg/kg-body weight as compared to the standard antidiarrhoeal agent loperamide (dose:50mg/kg-body weight). Hibiscus sabdariffa caused an increase in latent period i.e. delayed the onset of diarrhoeal episode and decreased the frequency of defecation. Anti-microbial activity was tested using a number of micro-organisms.The peripheral analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa against acute inflammatory pain was significantly high as compared to potent inhibitory activity of Diclofenac (25mg/kg). Therefore, it is likely that the ethanolic extract at a dose of 400mg/kg might suppress the formation of these substances or antagonize the action of these substances and thus exerts its analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing test. Anti-diarrheal activity was present in the ethanolic extract (500mg/kg) which indicate that the drug in decreased intestinal motility. This plant sample didn’t show any antimicrobial activity.
Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa, phytochemical screening, Antidiarrhoeal screening, castor oil, analgesic activity, writhing, disc diffusion method.
|3.|| Synergistic Effects of Disintegrants on Release of poorly Water soluble drug |
Md. Mofizur Rahman, Abul Basar Khalpha, Amit Kumar Chaurasiya, Mithilesh Kumar Jha, Md. Qamrul Ahsan, Zakaria Faruki and Md. Jannatul Ferdaus
Abstract: We have done research work in lab to find out proper formulation of immediate release tablet by using of various types of disintegrants (crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose), in order to examine the effect of mode of absorption of disintegrants on release mechanism from tablets. Acetaminophen, a poor soluble drug was used as a model drug to estimate its release pattern from different formulations. The USP paddle method was selected to perform the dissolution profiles carried out by USP apparatus 2 (paddle) at 50 rpm in 900 ml phosphate buffer pH 5.8. Successive dissolution time, time required for 25%, 50% and 80% of the drug release (T25%, T50%, T80%) was used to evaluate the dissolution results. A One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to recognize the result. Statistically significant differences were found among the drug release profile from all the formulations except mode of addition of crosspovidone. At a fixed amount of disintegrants, extragranular mode of addition seemed to be the best mode of incorporation. The best release was achieved with the sodium carboxymethylcellulose and sodium starch glycolate containing formulations. The T50 and T80 values were analytical of the fact that the drug release was faster from tablet formulations containing carboxymethylcellulose and sodium starch glycolate. The drug release was very much negligible difference by the mode of crospovidone addition. Two formulations found very small T50 and T80 values indicating very much faster release. From the all formulations corresponded extragranular mode of addition could be the best mode of incorporation. The drug release was unaffected by the mode of crospovidone addition. The mode of incorporation of disintegrants suggested enchancing the release of poor soluble drugs.
Keywords: Acetaminophen, disintegrants, wet granulation, intragranularly, extragranularly
|4.|| Validated Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Olmesartan Medoxomil in Pharmaceutical Formulation |
Abdullah Al Masud, Md. Mahfuzur Rahman , Moynul Hasan, Md. Kamal Hossain Ripon, Ahsanur Rahman Khan, Md. Rabiul Islam and Md. Raihan Sarkar
Abstract: A simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the deterrmination of Olmesartan Medoxomil in raw material and tablets. The λmax of Olmesartan Medoxomil was found to be 256 nm. The linear dynamic response was found to be in the concentration range of 4-14 μg/mL and coefficient of correlation was found to be 0.9993. The %RSD value was below 2.0 for intraday and interday precision indicated that the method was highly precise. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.105 and 0.3045 μg/mL respectively which revealed that method was highly sensitive. The percentage recovery value was higher than 100 %, indicating the accuracy of the method and absence of interference of the excipients present in the formulation. The proposed method was simple, fast, accurate, precise and reproducible and hence can be applied for routine quality control analysis of Olmesartan Medoxomil in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.
Keywords: Olmesartan Medoxomil, Spectroscopy, Estimation, Validation
|5.|| General Concept of Calibration |
Mohammed Raihan Chowdhury
The term ‘calibration’ is apart from ‘adjustment’ though in practical work, sometimes, the term calibration is used to indicate adjustment. Even the equipments are adjusted unnecessarily by lab operators, because they don’t know what calibration means. The confusion between calibration and adjustment is very frequent as many electronic instrument and in particular those used for physic-chemical analysis frequently require zero or/& span adjustment before use, such as electronic balance, slide calipers.
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